This is a response to Arthur Danto's assertion that art ended in the 1960s. I note why I believe there are still boundaries and progression for art and attempt to illustrate them. I touch on ideas expounded by Francis Fukuyama and notions of Hegelian historical progression in the context of post-historical art. In addition, I conjecture a name for a new era of art -- pre-Destructivist Pluralism.
The Role of the Artist
The literary view of bourgeois society frequently gives rise to many paradoxical implications for the artist and their role within society. What is perhaps most apparent about these concepts is the persistent obsession with classist hierarchy. Not only does the artist seem to abhor the bourgeoisie, but feels gravitated to a life away from it, rejecting its values and traditions in favour of a purer life. However, it seems that the more the artist strives to escape it, the more it engrosses them. I comment on these paradoxes with a view to César Graña's Bohemia versus Bourgeois.
Does Jennie Livingston's 'Paris is Burning' reinforce or displace heteronormativity?
Paris is Burning is said to create an ambivalence in drag, of which aspects can be commodified and fetishized for the passive public and where heteronormative ideals are reinforced. Is this true? Or do the ambivalences created, when actively embraced by the public, displace or subvert heteronormative ideals.
As such, this essay considers whether Paris is Burning is successful, either in reinforcing or displacing heteronormativity.
Francis Ponge and the Agency of Language
This is an essay in response to Francis Ponge's collection of poetry, Le Parti pris des choses. Ponge's writing is a fascinating reflection on the agency of language over our minds and our communication. It limits our ability to express ourselves and creates inherent structures of thought and associations of which we are not even conscious. To circumvent this Ponge creates a verbal mechanism which he refers to as his "création métalogique". The method operates within an original genre, Objeu, which is designed to make language seem unfamiliar to the reader and creates an independent evaluation of the agency of language.